The booming automotive market towards digitization and autonomous vehicles is raising the need for safe and secure connectivity.
New generation of vehicles need to deliver different types of applications in various domains like infotainment, telematics, driver assistance and autonomous driving with maximum reliability, safety and privacy.
As a result, vehicles should be able to communicate not only with other vehicles, but also with pedestrians, roadside equipment and the internet. Automobiles are taking a more pro-active role by warning drivers of potential collisions with oncoming vehicles, monitoring intersections, gathering real-time traffic information pieces, exchanging incident alerts and emergencies with quick response and paramedic services.
The requirements for each domain and the associated use cases can be very different and have an important impact on the telecommunication standards used to provide the adequate services. This paper aims at providing an overview of the main standards and why features brought by 5G standard will be key to address the different V2X requirements in the coming years.
What is V2X?
Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication is a term that aggregates many different acronyms depending on the type of peer the vehicle communicates with:
- V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure): to communicate with Road Side Units (RSU) such as traffic lights and traffic cams
- V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle): to communicate between vehicles, without the telecom network
- V2P (Vehicle-to-Pedestrian): to proactively scan for pedestrians/bicycles. Various terminal types expected to aid V2P; such as smartphones, walking sticks, strollers, bicycle lights and bicycle navigators
- V2D (Vehicle-to-Device): to communicate with smart devices such as a smartphone, smart key and car tracker
- V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid): for electrical vehicles to communicate with the power grid
- V2M (Vehicle-to-Motorcycle): to communicate with motorcycles
- V2N (Vehicle-to-Network): to communicate with a mobile network and network connectivity
V2X can be used in many different ways to improve road safety, while making efficient use of existing smart traffic infrastructure. Most of the use cases are part of the following categories:
- Platooning: The formation of a convoy in which the vehicles are much closer together than can be safely achieved with human drivers, making better use of road space, saving fuel and making the transport of goods more efficient.
- Co-operative driving: Vehicles can use V2X to work together to minimize the disruption caused by lane changes and sudden braking, and exchanging real time pieces of information with panels and traffic lights.
- Queue warning: Roadside infrastructure can use V2X to warn vehicles of queues or road works ahead of them, so they can slow down smoothly and avoid hard braking.
- Avoiding collisions: Each vehicle on the road could use V2X to broadcast its identity, position, speed and direction. An on-board computer could combine that data with that from other vehicles to build its own real-time map of the immediate surroundings and alert the driver of any potential collisions.
- Hazards ahead warning: V2X can be utilized to extend a vehicle’s electronic horizon, so it can detect hazards around a blind corner, obscured by fog or other obstructions, such as heavy vehicles or undulations in the landscape.
- Increasingly autonomous driving: Along with other sensors and communications systems, V2X will play an important role in enabling vehicles to become increasingly autonomous.
- Driving assistance: Leveraging Augmented Reality and supported by the huge required bandwidth to provide driver assistance such as a real-time dashboard, heads-up navigation and infotainment.
5G on the highway to V2X
The booming automotive market towards digitization and autonomous vehicles is raising the need for safe and secure connectivity.Download our white paper